Working Methods

What goes on in my studio.....


Drawing and painting are an important part of my creative process and help inform & inspire my printmaking and I often employ techniques from printmaking in my mixed media work. My prints can also be incorporated into mixed media work through collage - details often missed in a big print can be celebrated in the process.

My hand made prints on paper are totally different to giclee & other mass produced reproductions confusingly also called prints........

In brief I make a plate, ink it, put it on the bed of the press, cover it with the damp paper I want to print onto, put blankets on top & wind it through the rollers of my press to transfer the image onto the paper. Printmaking this way is an uncertain, exciting, frustrating and messy process with no guaranteed outcome!

If you want more detail of how I work please continue reading......

For etchings I use sheet aluminium and a copper sulphate saline etching solution. The back of the plate is protected by parcel tape & various soft & hard grounds are applied to the front and scratches & marks made through them to the metal surface. The plate is then submerged in the etching solution which penetrates and bites into the unprotected metal to produce an image. Often a plate will have more than one submersion with grounds removed & reapplied each time. The plate is then cleaned & polished to make it ready to use.

A collagraph plate is made from a collage of materials glued onto a support which is usually a piece of thin plywood, card or metal. I use different types of papers, fabrics, plastics, fillers, carborundum, plant materials, adhesives, paint and sometimes a even blow torch to produce an image on the plate. Many collagraph plates I make are fragile and have a very limited life.

I use vegetable based 'stay open' ink from a local printmaking supplier for my printmaking and much fun can be had in the choosing & mixing of colours to be used.
Collagraph & etched plates are usually inked using intaglio techniques where ink is worked into the texture of the plate using a range of tools such as brushes, old credit cards & cotton buds and rollers & then carefully wiped to remove excess ink.
Linocuts are normally relief inked using rollers.
The plate is then placed ink side up on the bed of the press and damp paper laid on top followed by tissue paper & press blankets and then it is all wound through the rollers of the press and the pressure forces the ink onto the paper.

You never quite know what you will find when you take off the blankets and carefully pull the paper away from the plate - no two prints are ever the same! Often a plate needs further work before I am happy with the prints it produces.
Damp prints are carefully dried in layers of blotting paper weighted under boards to remove the moisture then hung from a drying rack for a few days to allow the inks to properly dry - see the studio photo at the top of this page.

Etched aluminium and lino are more robust than collagraph plates but by choice I only make a small number of prints from a plate whatever its strength. As each individual print is made from a plate inked and wiped by hand each print is unique.

Jurassic Coast Solar Eclipse
I sign and give an edition number to each print - e.g 2/4 is the second print out of the four made from one plate. Where I have chosen to use different colours/inking techniques for each print these are marked EU (Edition Unique) or VE (Variable Edition) in front of the edition number. Occasionally I will designate the first print as an Artist's Proof (A/P), while prints made as adjustments are made before a plate is finalised are labelled State Proof (S/P).

Usually my printing plates are not very attractive but I have been surprised to find that there are exceptions and a number of plates I have created and printed from have become artworks in their own right and examples can be seen in the archive gallery.